Tools and Curricula

From Top to Bottom: A Sex-Positive Approach for Men Who Have Sex with Men

Annova Health (2011).

This manual, developed in South Africa but relevant in regions across the world, was put together with health care providers in mind. The manual is divided into six sections: introduction to the manual; overview of men who have sex with men (MSM) in terms of sexuality and sexual identity and key terminology; the broader public health strategies relating to MSM; the role of the health care provider in terms of providing quality, competent MSM services; the potential mental health problems that affect MSM; and practical guidelines in relation to the medical management of sexual health problems that may affect MSM.

MSM: An Introductory Guide for Health Workers In Africa

The Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation (2009).

This 102-page manual is designed to provide counselors and health care providers who work in Africa with a detailed understanding of men who have sex with men (MSM), issues that affect the health of MSM, and how to approach MSM in clinical settings. It is an interactive guide with group exercises, summaries, and tools to assess understanding and develop commitment. Topics covered include an overview of MSM and HIV in Africa; stigma, sexual identity, coming out and disclosure; anal sex and common sexual practices; HIV and STIs; mental health; condom and lubricant use; and risk reduction counseling. Although the guide is Africa-focused, it can be adapted for use in other contexts.

Legal Aspects of HIV/AIDS: A Guide for Policy and Law Reform

World Bank (2007).

This 250-page document is intended as a practical guide to legal reform to enable effective action against HIV. It seeks to alert those working on HIV strategies and projects to opportunities for legal and policy reform and to provide them with tools to undertake these challenges. The guide identifies key issues, discusses the pertinent legal and policy considerations for each issue, and provides at least one good practice example for each, as well as resources for continued research and reading. A section focused on men who have sex with men  discusses gender orientation in general antidiscrimination statutes, sexual offenses, vague or overly broad criminal statutes and police harassment, and rights of association and expression.

Reducing HIV Stigma and Discrimination: A Critical Part of National AIDS Programs

International Center for Research on Women (2007).

This document presents strategies, program examples, and research findings about how governments, the UN system, donors, and civil society can make the reduction of HIV-related stigma and discrimination central in the national response to AIDS. Section 1 explains why stigma and discrimination serve as major roadblocks to universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support; section 2 discusses how national AIDS control programs can reduce stigma and discrimination; and section 3 lays out steps toward effective responses to HIV stigma and discrimination. Annexes include examples of successful programs, tools for measuring stigma and discrimination, resources for stigma reduction, and key points for advocacy.

Blueprint for Provision of Comprehensive Care to Gay Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Latin America and the Caribbean

World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization (2010).

This document offers a set of tools to support planning and implementation of health promotion and health care activities for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. It reflects recommendations emerging from the expert Regional Consultation on Health Promotion and the Provision of Care to Men Who Have Sex with Men in Latin America and the Caribbean, held July 14-16, 2009, in Panama City. The document contains a compendium of management algorithms, or step-by-step procedural diagrams, that encompass the essential elements of a variety of approaches to MSM health, such as first clinical evaluation, HIV risk and infection, ano-rectal health, substance use, sexual concerns, emotional and mental health, consequences of violence, and community-clinic interaction. Although developed for the LAC region, it is a tool that can inform health care provision in other contexts.

Engaging Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Clinical Setting: A Primer for Physicians, Nurses, and Other Health Care Providers

Alaya G., Do T., Semugorna P., et al. Men Who Have Sex with Men Global Forum (MSMGF, 2011).

This document serves as a primer on health care provision for men who have sex with men (MSM) for physicians, nurses, and other health care providers in diverse clinical settings. It outlines the roles and responsibilities of health care providers regarding MSM; debunks myths commonly associated with homosexuality; and takes up key issues that affect MSM health, such as mental health, sex work, physical and sexual violence, drug use, and family relationships. The document contains an extensive resource list for health care providers interested in deepening their skills and knowledge about providing care for MSM.

Operational Guidelines for Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV Programmes for Sex Workers, Men Who Have Sex with Men, and Transgender People—Volumes I and II, National and Sub-National Levels

MEASURE Evaluation (2012).

This document provides guidance in planning, monitoring, and evaluating programs for men who have sex with men, sex workers, and transgender people for national, subnational (volume I), and service delivery (volume II) levels. The first volume is intended for country- and national-level bodies and donor agencies, while the second is intended for networks, nongovernmental organizations, and other civil society groups. The guidelines are organized using the "eight steps" model for HIV prevention, and contain summary information, methods and tools, and resource lists.

Supporting Community-Based Responses to AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria: A Guidance Tool for Including Community Systems Strengthening in Proposals for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (2011).

Community Systems Strengthening (CSS) is about building the capacity of community-based organizations to become active participants in the HIV response. Although this tool is primarily intended for use by those planning, advocating for, or drafting proposals to the Global Fund, it includes concrete CSS activities and models that can be applied in other contexts. Building on the information provided in the Global Fund’s 2010 CSS Framework and additional updates to the CSS indicators, this document aims to (1) increase understanding of CSS; (2) provide practical guidance on developing CSS activities for Global Fund proposals, advocating for including CSS in national and regional proposals; and (3) suggest ways to more effectively implement CSS activities in successful proposals.

Respect, Protect, Fulfill—Best Practices Guidance in Conducting HIV Research with Gay, Bisexual and Other MSM in Rights-Constrained Environments

The American Foundation for AIDS Research, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Johns Hopkins University Center for Public Health and Human Rights, and United Nations Development Program (2011).

This guidance document was developed for both researchers and community-based organizations (CBOs) in rights-constrained environments. It is intended to help both groups to better design and conduct meaningful research on HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in challenging social, political, and human rights contexts. The guidance provides a checklist of factors for researchers and CBOs to consider in the design, conduct, and implementation of research studies, and offers lessons learned from case studies of research and community partnerships, recent successes, and challenges. It contains a user-friendly set of appendices with questions for researchers and CBOs to ask as they engage in MSM-focused research to ensure that they are on the right track.

Speaking Out: A Toolkit for MSM-Led HIV & AIDS Advocacy

Ripley J., Laurer K. Men Who Have Sex with Men Global Forum (MSMGF, 2011).

This advocacy toolkit was created to address the urgent need for men who have sex with men (MSM) everywhere to engage in advocacy locally, nationally, and globally to end the HIV epidemic and promote their human rights. The toolkit equips individuals and organizations with tools and techniques enabling them to become advocates right now, whoever and wherever they happen to be. It builds on advances made in past toolkits from around the world, with some key differences: (1) it is specifically MSM-focused, with exercises and ideas that serve as conduits for the energy and contributions of MSM communities; (2) it is built on the belief that organizations can start where they are, and assumes that the skill sets of individual advocates and organizational maturity of MSM groups are wide-ranging and take time to develop; and (3) it approaches HIV from a broad human rights framework, balancing public health and human rights approaches toward addressing MSM community susceptibility to HIV. The toolkit is designed to be participatory and contains facilitation tools, including handouts.

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