This comprehensive manual grew out of the combined efforts of people in Asia to stop HIV. The first section presents background information on drug use and HIV vulnerability, the rationale for harm reduction, and balancing and integrating the approaches of supply, demand, and harm reduction. Briefing papers on critical issues, such as mapping drug use in Asia and care and support of people who inject drugs with HIV, are included for use as advocacy tools in the region. The second section contains nine chapters on program design, implementation, and maintenance, including rapid assessments, voluntary counseling and testing, and addressing the needs of specific groups. The third section contains appendices with information on hepatitis A, B, and C; HIV; illicit drugs and their characteristics; and sexually transmitted infections.