Additional Resources

International Rectal Microbicide Advocates (IRMA)

IRMA. (n.d.)

IRMA works to advance a robust rectal microbicide research and development agenda, with the goal of creating safe, effective, acceptable, and accessible rectal microbicides for the women, men, and TG individuals around the world who engage in anal intercourse.

The Global Fund Strategy in Relation to Sexual Orientation/Gender Identities (SOGI) Strategy

Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (n.d.)

This document outlines the Global Fund’s SOGI strategy. The intent of the strategy is to augment and reinforce the efforts of the Global Fund in realizing outcomes and impact against the three diseases (AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria); recognizing the vulnerabilities of MSM, TG peoples, and sex workers; and recognizing the imperatives to minimize harm. Actions are recommended that can be implemented in ways that are gradual, careful, built upon current positive efforts and good intents, and respectful of the varying contexts in which the Global Fund operates.

Fundraising Toolkit—A Resource for HIV-Related Community-Based Projects Serving Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) and Transgender Individuals in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

The American Foundation for AIDS Research (2012).

This guide provides fundraising guidance for CBOs that provide HIV-related programs and services for gay men, TG individuals, and other MSM in low- and middle-income countries. It offers information about the funders of MSM/LGBT groups, snapshots of what those grant programs look like, how to approach funders, and what projects those grant makers have supported in the past. It lists U.S.-based and non–U.S.-based funding sources. The guide also offers general tips on fundraising, from networking to proposal writing, and includes templates to help organizations and activists get started.

Global Forum on MSM and HIV

The Forum is comprised of a loose network of civil society groups, AIDS organizations, MSM groups, and other agencies, which together advocate at the national and global levels for improved HIV programming for MSM. The initiative is a response to the shared concern that existing HIV strategies do not adequately address the needs of MSM. The Forum disseminates information on best practices in HIV prevention and treatment, advocates for improved access and funding for MSM services, and provides a forum for MSM around the globe to strengthen their regional, subregional, and national networks. Member organizations share a commitment to social justice and human rights, and to improving the HIV response to MSM and other sexual and gender minorities.

Publications on HIV Testing Services

World Health Organization (n.d.).

This webpage of the World Health Organization’s Department of HIV/AIDS lists all publications on testing and counseling/HIV testing services starting from 2000. Readers can link back from here to the department’s main HIV testing services page, which includes policy and guidance, advocacy, training materials, data on HIV counseling and testing, and more. 

Behavioural Strategies to Reduce HIV Transmission: How to Make them Work Better

Coates, T. J., Richter, L., and Caceres C. The Lancet (August 2008), 372(9639): 669684.

This article argued that the radical behavioral change needed to reduce HIV transmission requires radical commitment. Reviewing 25 years of HIV prevention efforts, the authors identified successful HIV prevention interventions and ways to improve behavioral strategies to reduce HIV transmission. They stressed the need to combine behavioral, biomedical, and structural approaches to fight HIV transmission effectively. To date, behavioral changes have reduced HIV in certain countries, regions, or subpopulations because of significant behavior changes taking place among a majority of the population; a mix of communication channels providing clear, actionable risk reduction and health-seeking messages that people can choose from; and local involvement in developing, producing, and disseminating the right messages. Sustained changes in risk behavior, however, have not been found anywhere, the authors noted. They concluded that behavioral strategies must take place in combination with different approaches and at multiple levels of influence. 

Can Couples Testing Contribute to Achieving the AIDS Transition?

Over, M. (2010).

This blog entry examined couples counseling within the context of the economic theory of asymmetric information, also referring to epidemiologic findings on its efficacy. Using observational data from several different countries, the author suggested that the primary hurdle to HIV prevention is the lack of couples counseling. The problem of asymmetric information, when two people engaging in a transaction have differing amounts of information, is a driver of the HIV epidemic, the author argued. Not knowing one another’s status discourages the formation and survival of monogamous partnerships. Based on data from studies that find lower HIV transmission rates among serodiscordant couples than among couples who do not know their partners’ status and from studies that find the majority of people obtain HIV tests individually, couples testing should be a priority for helping reduce the HIV epidemic, the author said. He added that more rigorous research is needed around this issue of couples testing. 

The World Health Organization (WHO) Management of Substance Abuse

Management of Substance Abuse is a section of the WHO website that offers a large databank on substance use and mental health around the world. The Global Information System on Alcohol and Health includes comprehensive regional and country-level information and standard indicators on substance use trends and related mortality in all United Nations member countries. These data are updated on a regular basis. The site also houses a database of publications and resources on alcohol abuse as a risk factor for HIV, as well as programmatic approaches for HIV prevention related to alcohol use.

United States Substance Use & Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)

This website is a repository for the United States (U.S.) Office of Applied Statistics searchable database on substance abuse and mental illness. SAMHSA collects national statistics on the incidence and prevalence of mental illness, alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use. The site includes reports, publications and references on a wide range of substance use and mental health topics in U.S. populations. It also contains a database of evidence-based practices for the prevention and treatment of mental and substance use disorders

United States National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA)

NIAAA is a United States (U.S.) National Institutes of Health website providing extensive information and resources on prevention initiatives for populations that are at risk for alcohol abuse. The site includes a database of alcohol-related biomedical research, educational materials on alcohol abuse prevention and the association of alcohol use and other diseases, including HIV. The focus of NIAAA and the website is on U.S.-based activities, although some information on alcohol programs and consumption in other countries is available in the database. 


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