In the broadest terms, “gender-based violence” is violence that is directed at an individual based on his or her biological sex, gender identity, or his or her perceived adherence to socially defined norms of masculinity and femininity. Under the technical guidance of the PEPFAR Gender Technical Working Group, AIDSTAR-One, a global project funded by PEPFAR through USAID that provided support and technical assistance to USG teams across the world, developed a number of technical resources exploring the connections among gender inequality, GBV, and HIV. These resources focus on identifying and sharing promising programmatic approaches and disseminating key elements of success for replication and scale-up.
In 2010, AIDSTAR-One conducted case studies in three countries where GBV services were available. These case studies were developed to help program managers design, plan, and implement strategies to integrate GBV within existing HIV, family planning, or reproductive health services and programs. Analysis of the studies—conducted in Vietnam, Ecuador, and Swaziland—yielded five major findings and eight overarching recommendations. This collection presents the case studies and the accompanying report.
As in many countries worldwide, GBV in Ecuador is a common occurrence that is widely accepted by society. According to the 2004 Demographic and Maternal-Infant Health Survey, approximately one in three (31 percent) ever-married or -partnered women aged 15 to 49 years had experienced physical intimate partner violence in their lifetime. CEPAM has been a major force in providing care and support to GBV survivors as well as raising awareness about the issue both in Guayaquil in Guayas Province, where it is located in Ecuador, and nationally. This case study documents both CEPAM’s comprehensive response to GBV, which has been honed over many years, and the organization’s partnership with the Government of Ecuador to address GBV holistically through both provision of services and prevention interventions.
Gender inequality is cited as a major contributor to Swaziland's high HIV prevalence rate. There is no routine screening for gender-based violence (GBV) by health providers in Swaziland to provide statistical data relating to the incidence or prevalence of GBV. However, a national population-based household study on violence against children (mostly girls) and young women revealed an epidemic of sexual assault against girls. This case study describes SWAGAA, which was founded and registered in 1990 as a volunteer-operated, grassroots NGO to provide counseling services to survivors of family violence and sexual abuse in Swaziland.
Gender-based violence (GBV) is under-reported and under-researched in Vietnam. Communities are not well equipped to address or change attitudes about GBV. The women’s counseling center, which provides women with a safe space to discuss the violence in their lives, is a central part of the Improving Health Care Response to Gender-based Violence project. The project, implemented from 2002 to 2009 in two Hanoi hospitals by the Hanoi Department of Health and the Population Council, is an example of a public sector intervention that builds on a medical model and links survivors to ongoing counseling and support. This case study delineates this GBV program in Vietnam.
In 2010, AIDSTAR-One conducted case studies in three countries where GBV services were available. The goals of the case studies were to:
- Analyze the policy environment related to preventing GBV and providing HIV services to survivors of GBV.
- Describe service delivery components, including crisis intervention, survivor support and advocacy, community education, staff training, monitoring and evaluation, policy advocacy, and counseling.
- Describe how the programs make linkages or referrals to other health and social support programs such as family planning, HIV testing and counseling (HTC), reproductive health services, economic development, and legal support.
- Summarize each program’s current and future long-term funding strategies.
These case studies were developed to help program managers design, plan, and implement strategies to integrate GBV within existing HIV, family planning, or reproductive health services and programs. Analysis of the studies—conducted in Vietnam, Ecuador, and Swaziland—yielded five major findings and eight overarching recommendations, which are captured in this report.