Advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) have dramatically changed the course of HIV disease, reducing both HIV-related morbidity and mortality. Adherence to treatment, most importantly ART, has proven essential to achieving these benefits in studies conducted in both high-income and resource-limited settings (Bajunirwe et al. 2009; Paterson et al. 2000). Recent studies have expanded the focus of adherence to include retention in care, which includes attending regular follow-up visits (see defi nitions below). Promoting adherence to treatment and retention in care requires an understanding of the potential barriers that patients face and developing interventions that overcome these barriers. Longterm maintenance of adherence requires that these interventions be integrated into sustainable programs that provide a consistent supply of medications, education, and ongoing support as barriers arise (Rosen, Fox, and Gill 2007).