Since the late 1990s, by providing services to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, many countries have made significant progress toward eliminating new HIV infections in children. The introduction and rollout of Option B+ was a contributing factor in these achievements and an important step toward achieving an AIDS-free generation. Nonetheless, access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) and retention in care remain challenges. Given the low levels of PMTCT service coverage, many governments and development organizations are reaching out to nontraditional partners, including the private for-profit sector, community-based organizations (CBOs), and civil society organizations (CSOs), to scale up and expand access to PMTCT services.
This literature review compares PMTCT programs implemented by CSOs with those implemented by public sector providers and the private, commercial sector, in order to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of each facility ownership model.