Pitpitan, E.V. and Kalichman, S.C. AIDS and Behavior (June 2015), e-publication ahead of print.
This qualitative literature review assessed research on alcohol venues to determine the social and structural factors that might influence risk for HIV in these settings. Despite the many established HIV risk factors at play in alcohol venues, limited prevention strategies have been implemented in such places. The authors identified a total of 11 HIV prevention interventions or programs: five carried out at the social level and aimed at changing social norms, two at the structural level, and two combining social and structural approaches (multilevel). The five interventions at the social level included staff training on responsible alcohol serving, HIV prevention messages at venues, and condom availability. The two structural intervention studies were conducted as public health program evaluations, and offered diagnosis and treatment for sexually transmitted infections on-site. The multilevel studies delivered a peer-led intervention, as well as a structural intervention entailing HIV education for venue managers. The authors concluded that alcohol venues play an important role in influencing risks for
HIV, and recommended that HIV prevention programs consider behavioral interventions beyond condom use and HIV prevention messaging. In particular, as antiretroviral therapy and other new prevention technologies are brought to scale, alcohol venues will be important places for promotion and intervention.