Mulawa, M., Kajula, L.J., Yamanis, T.J., et al. Journal of Interpersonal Violence (January 2016), pii: 0886260515625910, e-publication ahead of print.
This analysis compared baseline rates of victimization and perpetration of three forms of intimate partner violence (IPV)—psychological, physical, and sexual—among sexually active men and women. Participants comprised 1,113 men and 226 women who were enrolled in an HIV-and gender-based violence prevention trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from October 2013 to March 2014. Both men and women (34.8% and 35.8%, respectively) reported experiencing any form of IPV victimization over the past year. Men and women reported similar prevalence of psychological and sexual victimization; however, more women than men reported physical IPV victimization. Men and women reporting psychological victimization reported only that form of IPV, while most men and women experiencing either physical or sexual victimization also experienced psychological violence. Rates of IPV victimization among perpetrators were remarkably high; both male and female perpetrators (approximately 70% and 80%, respectively) also reported IPV victimization within the last year. While this study could not assess whether victimization and perpetration occurred within the same relationship, the high overlap between victimization and perpetration suggested that IPV may be bidirectional, with men and women concurrently engaging in conflict in their relationships. The authors concluded that interventions should include a broader “family violence” or “partner violence” approach to reduce violence perpetrated by both genders.