Solomon, S. S., Mehta, S. H., Srikrishnan, A. K., et al. AIDS (March 2015), Vol. 29 Issue 6, pp. 723–731.
This study, one of the largest population-based studies among men who have sex with men (MSM) conducted in India, focused on prevalence, incidence, and associated correlates of HIV among MSM in 12 Indian cities. Participants included 12,022 self-identified men over age 18 who reported oral and/or anal intercourse with a man during the prior year. The analysis showed a 7 percent weighted HIV prevalence in MSM across all sites. Syphilis prevalence ranged from 0.8 percent to 4.4 percent. The study found higher odds of HIV infection among men who were older, were currently married, practiced only receptive or both receptive and penetrative sex, had a lifetime history of sexually transmitted infections, or had more lifetime male partners. Higher education was associated with decreased odds of HIV infection. The analysis also showed an overall HIV incidence of 0.87 percent among MSM. In multivariate analyses, men who had a larger number of male partners, or who had herpes simplex 2 infections, syphilis, or genital discharge, had a significantly higher chance of acquiring a new HIV infection. The authors noted that discordance between HIV prevalence and incidence in some cities may suggest emerging HIV epidemics in areas previously described as having a lower HIV burden, and called for targeted prevention programming in these areas.