New in Early Infant Diagnosis

Early infant diagnosis establishes the presence of HIV infection in HIV-exposed infants and children younger than 18 months of age. An essential first step in caring for HIV-infected children is accurate and early diagnosis of HIV—early HIV testing, prompt return of results, and rapid initiation of treatment. Globally between 2002-2016 there was a 66% decline in new pediatric HIV infections; however, only ~50% of HIV-exposed infants received a test by two months of age in 2016 in 21 priority countries (UNAIDS, 2017). This collection of resources and tools helps you find what you need to scale up early infant diagnosis.

Laboratory Management

New! Impact of SMS/GPRS Printers in Reducing Time to Early Infant Diagnosis Compared With Routine Result Reporting: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Vojnov L. et al. (2017). JAIDS. 76:5 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001526.

Short message service (SMS) and general packet radio service (GPRS) printers allow test results to be transmitted immediately to health facilities on completion of early infant diagnosis (EID) testing in the laboratory. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the benefit of using SMS/GPRS printers to increase the efficiency of EID test result delivery compared to traditional courier paper-based results delivery.

New! Evaluating Turnaround Times for Early Infant Diagnosis Samples in Kenya from 2011-2014: A Retrospective Analysis of HITSystem Program Data

Wexler C. et al. (2017) PLoS ONE 12(8): e0181005. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181005.

This retrospective analysis was conducted of HIV-exposed infants enrolled in 15 Kenyan hospital early infant diagnosis (EID) programs and in three laboratories using the HITSystem, an eHealth intervention that alerts staff when services are overdue or results are delayed. The authors assessed mean and median TAT from when a sample was: 1) obtained to when it was shipped to the laboratory; 2) shipped to when it was received at the laboratory, 3) received to when a result was posted; and 4) the total time from obtaining the sample to posting the result.

Clinical Implementation

New! Interventions to Significantly Improve Service Uptake and Retention of HIV-Positive Pregnant Women and HIV-Exposed Infants along the PMTCT Continuum of Care: Systematic Review

Vrazo A.C., J. Firth, A. Amzel, R. Sedillo, J. Ryan, B.R. Phelps. (2017). Trop Med Int Health. DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13014.

This systematic review summarizes interventions that demonstrate statistically significant improvements in service uptake and retention of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants along the PMTCT cascade including uptake of early infant diagnostic testing and retention of mothers and infants.

New! Use of Mobile Phones and Text Messaging to Decrease the Turnaround Time for Early Infant HIV Diagnosis and Notification in Rural Zambia: An Observational Study

Sutcliffe C.G. et al. (2017). BMC Pediatrics. 17:66. DOI: 10.1186/s12887-017-0822-z.

This study evaluated the use of mobile phones in Zambia to improve the process of early infant diagnosis. The feasibility of using mobile phones to notify mothers of the availability of test results either directly, or through their local rural health center, was assessed. In addition, the performance of a national short message service (SMS) reporting system to deliver test results from the central laboratory to the clinic was evaluated during the first two years of implementation.