Chapter 8: Monitoring & Evaluation and Research

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Chapter Goals

For MONITORING & EVALUATION, to ensure site staff are able to:

  • Collect, analyze, and utilize routine data from VMMC service provision and performance standards to appropriately monitor the quality and safety of VMMC services and respond as needed.

For RESEARCH & FORMAL EVALUATIONS, to ensure site staff are able to:

  • Participate in periodic formal evaluations and research studies that address issues not captured in routine monitoring and evaluation (M&E) by providing adequate background information.

What Users Need to Know


Monitoring and evaluation are means of tracking progress and reviewing outcomes of a specific program with the goal of program improvement. Monitoring and reporting activities that collect, aggregate (combine), and share service provision data are an essential component of a VMMC program. VMMC programs should have the capacity to capture and track key required indicators regarding service delivery as well as safety and quality. Monitoring of VMMC programs is described in depth at PEPFAR Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting Indicator Reference Guide and Table 8.1.


Research in VMMC programs is conducted to advance the state of knowledge about VMMC practices so that global and local policies and program implementation can be improved. Research and formal evaluations are an important corollary approach to routine monitoring of VMMC services; they are used to answer specific questions related to quality, service delivery approaches, demand for, or utilization of services. Facility administrators, site managers, and facility clinical staff may either design and lead or be asked to participate in these studies from time to time. Anyone participating in IRB-reviewed research should, in addition to meeting organizational requirements, have training in research ethics. An internationally recognized online course is offered by CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) which provides an overview of research ethics [See CITI Training].

Tools, Instruments, and Guidance Documents

  1. PEPFAR Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting (MER 2.0) Indicator Reference Guide
  2. CITI Training
  3. VMMC Client Record Form
  4. VMMC Monthly Reporting Form
  5. VMMC Client Register
  6. PEPFAR Guidance for Monitoring & Reporting VMMC Indicators

To read more about the frequently referenced information, additional information, and to read related case studies download the chapter PDF.

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